The Conquest of 1760 was the culmination of 70 years of sporadic
warfare between Great Britain and France. France’s main North
American colony, New France, stretched from the Gulf of St.
Lawrence to the Mississippi valley and prevented the British
colonies along the Atlantic seaboard from expanding into the
interior. The British colonies were, moreover, far more populous
and much richer than New France. New France’s main defence
against them was hundreds of kilometres of wilderness along the
frontier and a collection of Indian allies who feared and hated
the British more than the French.
New France’s main military weakness was at sea rather than on
land. The British navy greatly outclassed the French and could
cut communications — and hence supplies and reinforcements —
from France to North America. At the same time, the British
could reinforce and resupply their colonies at will. When war
broke out again in the 1750s, that is exactly what they did,
though it took the British a few years to organize their armies
in North America and find competent generals to command them. At
the same time, France’s Indian allies fell away, leaving New
France to its fate.
In 1759 a young British general, James Wolfe, brought an army to
Quebec, the capital of New France, and, after a two months’
siege, defeated the French army on the Plains of Abraham just
outside the city. Quebec surrendered, and the next year three
British armies converged on the remaining French forces at
Montreal, forcing its surrender on September 8, 1760. It was an
overwhelming and convincing military victory, and it persuaded
the French to cede Canada to the British when peace was formally
made in 1763.
The French of Canada (who called themselves Canadiens) were now
officially separated from the French of France. There were
already regional differences, and soon there were more, as
French history diverged from Canada’s. The French revolution of
1789, which overthrew the French monarchy and deprived the
Catholic Church in France of its privileged status, did not
occur in Canada. The Canadiens still had a king, even if he was
British and Protestant, the Catholic Church was effectively
their state religion, and they still had a feudal system with a
local nobility (called seigneurs). Quebec for the next 200 years
could be seen as a much more old-fashioned version of France,
and the differences between the two were profound.
Great Britain now had a French-speaking Roman Catholic colony
(which they named the province of Quebec) in an English-speaking
and Protestant empire. The British promised religious tolerance
to the inhabitants, permitted them to retain their civil law,
and did not interfere with their use of the French language. At
the same time, English-speakers arrived, settling mainly in
Quebec City and Montreal, and the two groups, English and
French, settled down to construct an uncomfortable, illogical
but workable compromise between their two languages.
The language of trade became mainly English. Government
functioned in both languages, especially after the British
established an elected legislature in 1791, while the Catholic
church remained overwhelmingly French. The courts functioned in
both languages. French-Canadians who wished to advance
themselves had to learn English, and they did. To take one
example, Joseph Masson, a carpenter’s son, hired himself to an
English merchant and soon became a partner. Ultimately he became
a director of the Bank of Montreal, a seigneur, and Canada’s
first millionaire. Some French-Canadian nationalists found
Masson’s career impure — he had let down French values by
becoming bilingual and leading part of his life in English. But
Masson remained a French-Canadian by any reasonable standard; he
merely demonstrated the advantages of bilingualism.
Many French-Canadians intermarried with the English, and
sometimes their descendants had names like Burns or Blackburn or
Johnson — and in the 20th century Burns, Blackburn and Johnson
were all names of separatist politicians in Quebec. Sometimes it
produced unusual results, as when the title of Baron of
Longueuil passed through marriage into the Grant family.
Ironically the current Baron Grant is a cousin of Queen
Elizabeth II and lives in England. One nationalist premier of
Quebec, Maurice Duplessis, visited his ancestral turf in Europe,
but it was Scotland he visited, in honour of his Scottish
ancestors, and not France.
It is true that the Conquest of 1760 derailed the possibility of
a purely French-speaking society on the banks of the St.
Lawrence and forced the French-Canadians to live with the
English. Quebec and Canada became bilingual, officially and
unofficially. Yet the British victory in 1760 protected French,
even if it demoted the language from its unique status. Arguably
one result of the Conquest is that there is still a
French-speaking group of some 7 million people in Canada.
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